Intro to Indicators
Indicators must be precisely defined so that results can be compared between locations, reporting periods, and activities. We've studied performance data and designed DevResults to enforce indicator definitions that make data useful and meaningful.
- What are the different ways you can enter data?
- How do you format numbers in indicators?
- How do disaggregations work?
- What about other (general) rules for how indicators work?
- Entry: Set an indicator to Entry (or Direct Entry) if you want to type in a numeric response. So if your indicator asks for the number of trainees, you would enter the number of people trained (by location and broken down by your disaggregation). Here's what it would look like to enter "direct entry" data:
- Data Table: Set an indicator data source to Data Table if you need to track detailed information about every individual trainee, event, policy, or whatever you want to track. The table below shows what it would look like to enter "data table" data. This table captures the same indicator results as above, matched by color. The difference is whether you type in a numerical result (e.g. "4"), or whether you make a list of each thing you're counting -- like this list of trainees:
- Formula: A formula indicator is different. When using a formula, you're creating a calculation based on other indicators (like a percentage of men trained out of the total number of trainees). To do so, you'd assign a numerator (the number of men) and a denominator (total number of trainees), and the formula would calculate your percentage for you.
On the indicator definition page, the Data Source is set here:
- Number Format: Every indicator has one number format. Formats include: whole number, decimal, percentage, and rate per (such as x people per 10,000). Alternatively, an indicator can be defined with a yes/no result. An indicator cannot be "Number and percent of staff trained". Those would be two different indicators.
- Unit: Every indicator has either one unit (or no units). The most common unit is the individual, where results are reported as "Number of people receiving services" or "Number of people tested". Examples of other units include facilities, hectares, policies, dollars, jobs, trainings, schools, or metric tons. Percentages and yes/no indicators do not have units.
- Disaggregation: Three aspects define a disaggregation: the disaggregation, the disaggregation values, and whether the indicator is cross-disaggregated. The most common disaggregation is "sex". The disaggregation values, then, are "male, female". Another common disaggregation is "age". For "sex", the disaggregation values are clear. For "age", the categories must be defined, such as "<18, 18+", or "<1, 1-15, 15+". The same is true for any disaggregation. For example, for an indicator disaggregated by education level, disaggregation values might include: "no high school", "some high school", "high school graduate".
- If an indicator is defined as disaggregated, you cannot report non-disaggregated totals.
- Not defining the disaggregation values is the most common mistake in indicator definitions. For example, someone might say an indicator should be disaggregated by male, female, and age. What they mean is sex (male, female) and age (<18,18+), for example.
- Cross-Disaggregation: Any indicator with more than one disaggregation must be defined as either parallel- or cross-disaggregated.
- For parallel-disaggregation, the total result is reported for each disaggregation, split by its disaggregation values. The example below shows a result reported for males, females, minors, and adults.
- For cross-disaggregated data, the disaggregation values are combined to make unique categories. The example shows a result reported for male minors, male adults, female minors, and female adults.
- Reporting Level: The reporting level is the geographical disaggregation. Options include: administrative divisions (shapes on a map, like country, region, or district) and locations (such as villages or construction sites).
- An indicator must have the same definition across all locations, reporting periods, and activities. For example, if one activity reports disaggregated data for an indicator and another only reports totals, these cannot be the same indicator.
- Reported data must be given as the total results since the last time the data was reported. If data was last reported a year prior, the number reported should be the total achieved in the past year. If data was reported for the last quarter, the number reported should only be what was achieved this quarter.
- Targets can be listed as cumulative or periodic. A cumulative target would be the goal for an activity's life of party. A periodic target would be the goal for each reporting period, whatever the length of the reporting period.
- Reporting indicator results
- Indicator results reported for any given indicator must conform to all aspects of that indicator's definition.
- If an indicator is disaggregated by sex and reported at the region level, you would need the indicator results for males and females, for each reporting period, in each region (where the activity is active).
- Historical indicator results: If your previously recorded indicator results do not conform to the indicator definition you have specified in DevResults, there are five options for how to proceed:
- Track down the disaggregated data from its original source
- Estimate the disaggregations for previous data (inaccurate estimates could be misleading)
- Define previous data and future data with separate indicators (which makes it difficult to examine changes over time)
- Note: You can add such indicators together in a formula indicator to get an overview of totals and shared disaggregations over time.
- Re-define the indicator to fit previous data (the data is less useful when less specific)
- Do not include any data that does not fit the indicator definition (loss of previous information and record of work)
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